Addition and Subtraction



These two pages describe the rules for addition and subtraction.  In both the addition rule and the subtraction rule, dashes are placed between numbers to show that they have different units. These units include dollars, dimes, and cents.  Some of the addition and subtraction problems have more than these three units.  I am unable to determine what the unit of currency is for these columns.  I have provided the direct rules from the ciphering book and some sample problems. 

















Addition of Federal Money Rule: “Place the numbers according to their values that is dollars under dollars dimes under dimes cents under cents”






Simple Subtraction Rule: “Place the least number under the greatest so that units may stand under units tens under tens and so on draw a line under them and begin at the right hand and take each figure in the lower line from the figure above it and set down the remainders if the lower figure is greater than that above it give ten to the upper figure from the next number to increase take the lower and set down the remainder carrying one to the not lower figure with which proceed as before and so on until the whole is finished”