Arithmetic: Being a Sequel to First Lessons in Arithmetic(1822)

The content of this book is arranged in an unusual way compared to other books of this time. Following the preface and the table of contents is the index which appears before the main content of the book. Also there were no references cited at the end of the book. The book consists of two parts: The first part contains a course of examples for illustrations and application, and the second contains a development of the principles.

The audience of the book was intended to be eight to nine-year-old pupils. This would be grade 2 to grade 3 of the present day school age children. In this book, students are taught in a natural way where they can develop the ability to solve problems mentally and to acquire knowledge about solutions to problems that might occur in daily life. The author encourages memorizing basic ideas, as he mentioned in this preface: “When the principle is well understood, the rules which are printed in italics should be committed to memory.”

The organization of this book is different from present day mathematics books. There are no colored figures to illustrate the examples and everything is black and white. All questions in the text are word problems. The first page of the content starts with questions. The first instruction for the questions, “The student may perform the following examples in mind.” This may be similar to our modern statement: "Calculators are not necessary and may not be used for the following questions."

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