Ciphering Book (1845)
Written by Isaac Sheaffer.
This is a mathematics textbook that contains rules to perform addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. The first section is on addition, and it is titled "Addition of Federal Money." It contains a description of the rule for addition and example problems. The next section deals with simple subtraction. Next, the ciphering book contains five different forms of multiplication. These different forms are: simple multiplication, multiplication case II, multiplication case III, multiplication case IV, and multiplication case V. Each case for multiplication has a rule and examples. Also, there are four forms of division. They range from division of whole number, case II, case III, and contractions in division. There is a section dealing with the reduction of dollars to others units. The ciphering book also contains additional practical examples for these procedures.
Please visit the following sites for additional details of this manscript.