Revised August 1992, by the University Copyright Committee:
Marvin A. Donner,
Robert A. Mulle,
David S. Zubatsky
About the Copyright Policy ...
Table of Contents:
Part I -- Introduction to Copyright
1 . . . . Introduction
2 . . . . What Is A Copyright?
3 . . . . Duration of Copyright
Part II -- Fair Use Guidelines For Duplication at Millersville
1 . . . . Principles of Fair Use
2 . . . . Reproduction Service by the University Library
Instructional Materials Center and/or the Printing
and Duplicating Services
Part III -- Application of Fair Use Principles
1 . . . . Audiovisual Materials
2 . . . . Classroom and Instructional Purposes
3 . . . . Computer Software
4 . . . . Course Anthologies, Packets, or Custom Textbooks
5 . . . . Home Use Video
6 . . . . Interlibrary Loan
7 . . . . Library Reserve Materials
8 . . . . Library Reproductions
9 . . . . Music and Sound Recordings
10 . . . . Off-Air Recording of Television Broadcasts
11 . . . . Photocopying Machines
12 . . . . Public Performance Rights for Motion Pictures and
13 . . . . Public Performance Rights for Music
14 . . . . Unpublished Works
Part IV -- Appendices & Notes
1 . . . . Definitions
2 . . . . Guideline for Seeking Permission from Copyright
3 . . . . Sample Duplication Request Forms
4 . . . . Sample Form: Authorization to Video/Audio Tape
5 . . . . Sources on Copyright in the Library
6 . . . . Notes
PART I -- Intoduction to Copyright
Part I, Section 1 -- Introduction
These guidelines (note 1, see Part III, Section 6) are provided
to assist the University community in understanding and
conforming to the legal constraints of the federal copyright
law. The text of the law is contained in the statutes of the
Ninety-fourth Congress (Public Law 94-533) and in any revised
edition of the United States Code (Title 17). This Millersville
University policy was adopted by the President's Advisory
Council on December 5, 1992.
This is not a definitive statement on the issues. General
questions concerning library applications can be addressed to
the Director of Library Services; printing and duplicating
applications can be addressed to its director; computer software
can be addressed to the Assistant Vice President for Computing
and Information Technologies or the Director of Academic
Computing; audiovisual, videotaping, and off-air recording
rights can be addressed to the Director of the Instructional
Materials Center; and assembling of custom textbooks addressed
to the Supervisor of SMC's copy shop. Illegal copies are not
sanctioned for University programs, classrooms, copying and
printing services, or the University Library.
A Fair Use Committee, whose members will be appointed by the
President, will be responsible for the implementation,
interpretation, and review of this policy. The Director of
Library Services will serve as chairperson.
Part I, Section 2 -- What is a Copyright?
What is a Copyright?
Copyright is a constitutionally conceived property right which
is designed to promote the progress of science and art by
securing for the author of informative and/or creative works the
benefits of his or her original work for a specific period of
Copyright laws give the author/owner of original works exclusive
rights to do any of the following:
1. Reproduce the copyrighted work.
2. Prepare derivative works.
3. Distribute copies by sale or other transfer of ownership or
by rental, lease, or lending.
4. Perform or display the copyrighted work publicly in the
cases of literary, musical, dramatic, or choreographic
works; pantomimes; motion pictures and other audiovisual
works; or works of art.
Copyright laws cover books, journals, newspapers, sound
recordings, audiovisual materials, computer programs, literary
works, art, choreography, drama, and music. Use of such
materials may be governed by licenses and/or contracts in
addition to the provisions afforded by the copyright laws.
Although a specific media, for example, compact discs, may not
be mentioned in the copyright law, it does not mean that they
(or whatever supersedes them in the world of technology) are in
any way exempt from the laws governing copyright. Copyright laws
do not cover ideas, mathematical formulas, measuring devices,
blank forms, works of the U.S. government [the law is unclear
about how much copyright protection there is for local and state
publications], and works in the public domain.
Copyright is violated whenever the intent of copying can be
interpreted as avoiding purchase. However, educational
institutions and expecially faculty and libraries have received
special consideration in section 107 and 108 of the copyright
Part I, Section 3 -- Duration of Copyright
Duration of Copyright
For works copyrighted prior to January 1, 1978, the copyright
law retains the present term of copyright for twenty-eight years
from its first publication and/or registration. This term is
renewable for a second period of protection for a term of forty
-seven years. Copyrights in their first term must be renewed to
receive the maximum term of seventy-five years, but copyrights
in their second term between December 31, 1976, and December 31,
1977, are automatically extended to the maximum seventy-five
years without the need for renewal.
Works created after January 1, 1978, are protected under
copyright laws for the lifetime of the author, plus an
additional fifty years after the author's death. It is no
longer necessary for individuals to formally indicate copyright
on the work. Copyright protection under the common law will
automatically attach to any work that is published by an
individual or group.
Once a work is considered in the public domain, copyright cannot
PART II -- Fair Use Guidelines for Duplication at Millersville
Part II, Section 1 -- Principles of Fair Use
Principles of Fair Use
Within the copyright law exists the doctrine of fair use, which
sets certain limitations on the exclusive rights of producers of
copyrighted materials and allows a reasonable amount of
reproduction of copyrighted works without the payment of royalty
and copyright owner's permission.
The concept of fair use is presented as section 107 (Limitations
on Exclusive Rights) of the copyright law. This law provides
that the controlled reproduction of copies of copyrighted
materials for the purposes of teaching, criticism, commentary,
reporting, scholarship, and research is not an infringement of
copyright laws. Four general guidelines have been established
to determine the limits of fair use.
1. The purpose and character of the use, including whether such
use is of a commercial nature or is for nonprofit
2. The nature of the copyrighted work.
3. The amount of substantiality of the portion used in relation
to the copyrighted work as a whole.
4. The effect of the use upon the potential market for, or
value of, the copyrighted work.
Part II, Section 2 -- Reproduction Service by the University
Library Instructional Materials Center
and/or the Printing and Duplicating
Reproduction Service by the University Library, Instructional
Materials Center and/or the Printing and Duplicating Services
1. The University Library, Instructional Materials Center
and/or Printing and Duplicating Services will limit copying
to these guidelines.
2. All work submitted in excess of these guidelines must be
accompanied by documented permission from the copyright
PART III -- Application of Fair Use Principles
Part III, Section 1 -- Audiovisual Materials
The copying of audio visual materials will be guided by
the general principles of "fair use" and the applications
suggested for print materials.
Audiovisual materials are not exclusively limited to films,
videos, slides, and transparencies. Preassembled bulletin
boards, learning packets, story books with recordings, and
compact discs all fall under the category of audiovisual
material and may be protected by current copyright laws.
Permitted Uses of Audio Visual Materials
Displays and performances of audiovisual works are
permitted in nonprofit educational institutions when:
1. They must be shown as part of the instructional
2. They must be shown by students, instructors, or guest
3. They must be shown either in a classroom or other
school location devoted to instruction such as a
studio, workshop, library gymnasium, or auditorium if
it is used for instruction.
4. They must be shown either in a face-to-face setting or
where students and teacher(s) are in the same building
or general area.
5. They must be shown only to students and educators.
6. They must be shown using a legitimate (that is, not
illegally reproduced) copy with the copyright notice
Prohibited Uses of Audiovisual Materials
1. They are used for entertainment, recreation, or even
for their cultural or intellectual value but are
unrelated to teaching activity.
2. They are transmitted by radio or television (either
closed or open circuit) from an outside location.
3. They are shown in an auditorium or stadium before an
audience not confined to students, such as a sporting
event, graduation ceremony, or community lecture or
4. They involve an illegally acquired or duplicated copy
of the work.
Part III, Section 2 -- Classroom and Instructional Purposes
Classroom and Instructional Purposes
A single copy of a copyrighted work may be made by or for a
teacher for the purpose of study, scholarly research, or use in
teaching, as long as copying does not substitute for the
purchasing of a work or is not used to create, replace, or
substitute for anthologies, compilations, or collective works.
The following copies are permissible:
1. A chapter from a book.
2. An article from a newspaper or a periodical.
3. A short story, short essay, or poem, whether or not from a
4. A chart, graph, diagram, drawing, cartoon, or picture from a
book, periodical, or newspaper.
Multiple copies of a copyrighted work may be made if the
duplication does not exceed one copy per student and provided
1. The copying meets the test of "brevity."
a. In case of poetry, a complete poem of fewer than 250
words printed on no more than two pages or an excerpt
from a longer poem not to exceed 250 words.
b. In cases of prose, an article, story, or essay of less
than 2,500 words or an excerpt from a prose work not
exceeding ten percent of the work or 1,000 words, or
10% of the work, whichever is less, but in any event a
minimum of 500 words.
c. In cases of illustrations, one per book or article.
d. In cases of special works (poetry and/or prose that
combines language and illustrations, such as a
children's book), the work may not be reproduced in its
entirety; however, excerpts of not more than two pages
containing less than ten percent of the work may be
2. The copying meets the test of "spontaneity."
a. Copying that is at the inspiration of the teacher.
b. The decision to use the work and the moments of its use
are so close that time to obtain permission from the
copyright holder is unavailable.
3. The copying meets the "cumulative effect" text.
a. The material copied is for use in one course. (A course
may include multiple sections.)
b. Not more than one poem, article, story, or essay or two
excerpts of the above may be copied from the same
author. No more than three copies from the same
collective source during one course term.
c. No more than nine instances of multiple copying during
the period of one course term.
4. Each copy includes a notice of copyright on the first page
of each copy.
5. The copying does not include workbooks, exercises,
standardized tests, booklets, and answer sheets.
Part III, Section 3 -- Computer Software
It is the policy of Millersville University that contractually
protected and/or copyrighted computer software shall not be
improperly copied, distributed, or used by its employees,
students, or affiliated organizations. Copying does not just
entail duplicating floppy disks; it also takes place when a
program is transferred from a floppy onto a hard disk, sent over
a local area network, or telecommunicated over long-distance
lines. The impending emergence of global computer networks and
the advent of an all-digital technology will, no doubt, have a
major impact on future copyright policy.
The policy also recognizes that users, too, have rights and that
ultimately the ethical use of software involves a balance
between the competing interests of users and vendors. The
academic and administrative computing staffs will only install
*original* software, not from copies, to ensure legal
compliance. Where there is doubt, these units may require copy
permission from the rights holder or evidence of a license to
It is the responsibility of each member of the University
community to adhere to this policy and to enforce it with regard
to those he/she supervises. If any member of the community has
a question regarding the propriety of using software, he/she is
responsible for contacting his/her supervisor for direction.
The supervisor may in turn refer the question to the Director of
Academic computing or the Assistant Vice President for Computing
and Information Technologies. Policy appeals will be made
through the appropriate vice president.
Part III, Section 4 -- Course Anthologies, Packets, or Custom
Course Anthologies, Packets, or Custom Textbooks
The 1991 "Kinko's Case" (Basic Books, Inc. vs Kinko's Graphics
Corporation - Federal District Court in New York) confirmed that
the copyright law requires that permissions be sought and
royalties be paid to rights holders in connection with the
creation and sale of anthologies. The court defined anthology
as a "representative collection of selected literary pieces or
passages or of selected pieces in any art form." Sometimes
photocopy anthologies are also called "course packets,"
"readers," or "custom textbooks." Although it cannot guarantee
a rights holder's affirmative response to all requests, the
University recommends that the Academic Permissions Service of
the Copyright Clearance Center (27 Congress Street, Salem, Mass.
01970) be contacted to avoid a time-consuming, labor-intensive
process. There are registrations, royalty, and processing fees
involved. If an individual plans to have "custom textbooks"
compiled at SMC's copy shop, the staff will request permission
for producing coprightable material through the National
Association of College Stores' Copyright Permissions Services.
It should be noted that copyright owners are not required to
grant permission, and that if permission is granted, there is
usually a fee charged.
Part III, Section 5 -- Home Use Video
Home Use Video
Teachers in nonprofit educational institutions may use
videocassettes designated for "home use" as part of their
instructional program. "Home use" videos are usually more
popular titles retailed or rented for personal or family use
through local video stores and other outlets. This is enabled
by section 110 of the federal copyright law, which exempts media
utilization by classroom teachers from the public performance
Library use is also exempt, since the library is a regular place
of instruction for both classroom groups and individual
These "home use" videos may not be used as part of a non-
classroom or enrichment programs open to the public. Public-
performance-right materials need to be leased or rented.
Part III, Section 6 -- InterLibrary Loans
1. The Interlibrary Loan Section of the University Library may
not submit, during a calendar year, more than five requests
for photocopies of articles from a particular periodical
title if those requests are from issues published within the
last five years. No restrictions are placed on the number
of photocopies of articles requested for materials exceeding
2. No more than five requests for copies of excerpts of any
given work may be made during a calendar year (January 1 to
3. The library must state that its requests comply with the
Copyright Act and must retain request records for a three-
4. Copying should not be done to substitute for a subscription
to, or purchase of, a periodical title
5. All copies made by the Interlibrary Loan Section must bear
the following copyright notice:
"Notice: This material may be protected by copyright law
(Title 17, U.S. Code)."
This notice must be stamped on the first page of the copied
6. Interlibrary loan order forms shall include a warning of
Part III, Section 7 -- Library Reserve Materials
Library Reserve Materials
1. The Library's Reserve Section may place one photocopy of a
periodical article per issue or one chapter from a book on
2. Library Reserve may shelve additional copies provided by
faculty so long as the faculty member provides adequate
reassurance in writing that the copies conform to the
copyright laws or that writtern permission from the
copyright holder has been obtained.
3. Phono records, audiocassettes, videocasettes, and other
media titles may be placed on reserve in the Curriculum
Materials Center if they are legal copies with appropriate
markings and identification.
4. Copies of copyrighted materials may not be retained on
reserve for more than one semester for any faculty member
unless the library receives assurance from the faculty
member that permission to reproduce and distribute copies in
this fashion has been granted by the copyright holder and
that said reproduction is in accordance with all copyright
5. The following notice of copyright must be placed on all
photocopied materials housed by the library:
"Notice: this material may be protected by copyright law
(Title 17 U.S. Code)."
6. "Consumable works" such as workbooks, exercises,
standardized tests; booklets, and answer sheets may not be
photocopied, nor will they be accepted, for placement on
7. No books or materials obtained through interlibrary loan
shall be placed on reserve.
Part III, Section 8 -- Library Reproductions
Single replacement copies of copyrighted works may be made to
acquire an out-of-print title that cannot be obtained through
normal channels. Subsections (B) and (C) of Section 108 of the
Copyright law have been interpreted "to permit libraries (not
other organizations) to make single copies of protected works
for preservation purposes. Copies of unpublished works may be
deposited in another library [for researcher use, for example],
but the copy of the published work should probably be retained
in the originating library." (note 2, see Part III, Section 6)
The copying of an entire published work is permitted only for
replacement of a copy that is damaged, deteriorating, lost, or
stolen. It appears that Section 108 will not allow direct
conversion and storage of documents in any machine-readable
Part III, Section 9 -- Music and Sound Recordings
Music and Sound Recordings
Prohibitions in the copying of music are essentially the same as
those for printed materials. Sound recordings consist of all
audible recordings and are not limited only to those of music.
1. A single copy of a copyrighted sound recording may be made
from sound recordings owned by the University or an
individual teacher for the purpose of constructing aural
exercises or examination. The copy is to be retained by the
University or individual teacher.
2. A single copy of recordings of performance by students may
be made for the purpose of evaluation and may be retained by
the teacher or department.
3. Printed copies of music which have been purchased may be
edited or simplified, provided that the fundamental
character of the work is not distorted or the lyrics altered
4. University-owned recordings may not be transmitted by any
unlicensed broadcast means.
5. Copyrighted music may be copied if it is emergency copying
to replace purchased copies which are not available for any
imminent performance. Purchased replacement copies must be
substituted in due course.
6. Single copies of an entire work may be made for purposes
other than performance, provided the copyright holder has
confirmed that the work is out of print or is available only
in a larger work.
7. Multiple copies of excerpts may be duplicated for classroom
purposes if the excerpts in no case comprise an entire
performance unit and in no case exceed ten percent of the
entire work, and if not more than one copy per student is
Part III, Section 10 -- Off-Air Recording of Television
Off-Air Recording of Television Broadcasts
With the availability of video recording equipment, copying of
television broadcast programming for the purpose of replaying an
educationally relevant program in a classroom at a convenient
time has become a common practice.
On October 14, 1981, the "Guidelines for Off-Air Recording of
Broadcast programming for Educational Purposes," produced by the
Kastenmeir Committee, were entered into the "Congressional
Record." While these guidelines do not have the effect of law,
they are an integral part of the current copyright law and carry
a great weight in deciding issues of copyright violation. For
this reason, the guidelines should be adhered to by all
Millersville University employees regardless of where the
recording is done.
1. A unit may tape a program and retain it for forty-
five calendar days provided that:
a. Such recordings are used only once for teaching and
repeated only once in the first ten class days following
b. After ten class days, the tape is used in the classroom
only for teacher evaluation, i.e., only to decide to
include the program in a curriculum after receiving
permission from the copyright owner.
c. Videotapes must be erased or destroyed after the forty-
five day period unless a legal copy is being obtained.
d. Taping of broadcast programming is done only in response
to a request from an individual teacher and not in
anticipation of such a request.
e. All recordings include the copyright notice of the
f. Additional copies reproduced to meet legitimate teaching
needs are subject to all provisions governing the
original. Recordings need not be copied in their
entirety, but the original content may not be altered,
combined, or merged into anthologies or compilations.
2. No editing will be done when copying is performed by the
Instructional Materials Center. Advertisements and other
"extras" will appear as broadcast.
In the 1984 Universal vs. Sony decision, the Supreme Court
limited legal copying from television at home to personal use in
order to fulfill time shifting needs (i.e., not being at home or
more than one program running at the same time). This decision
does not legalize the use for instruction.
Part III, Section 11 -- Photocopying Machines
All photocopiers must have the following notice posted on the
copying machine or on a wall above the copier:
"The copyright laws of the United States (Title 17, U.S.
Code) govern the making of photocopies or other
reproductions of copyrighted materials. The doctrine of
fair use (Section 107) permits certain limited copying of
copyrighted works for educational or research purposes
without the permission of the copyright owner. This fair
use is a limited exception, which, if exceeded, can
subject the person making unauthorized copies and the
University to severe penalties."
It is the responsibility of the individual requesting the copies
to make sure that copying does not violate fair use practices.
Part III, Section 12 -- Public Performance Rights for Motion
Pictures and Videocassettes
Public Performance Rights for Motion Pictures and Videocassettes
Millersville University has signed license agreements with
several companies. Questions should be addressed to the
Director of Student Activities in the Student Memorial Center.
Part III, Section 13 -- Public Performance Rights for Music
Public Performance Rights for Music
Millersville University has signed Performance Rights agreements
with ASCAP, BMI, and SESAC. Any questions should be addressed
to the Director of Purchasing.
Part III, Section 14 -- Unpublished Works
All unpublished works, including theses and dissertations, and
works of art are under protection of copyright from the moment
they are created. Accordingly, all unpublished works are
subject to the same copyright regulations as books and
periodicals. Various unpublished titles owned by the University
may, however, be photocopied or microfilmed by the Library in
order to guarantee their security and preservation. The
original may be stored as a master and a copy placed in
PART IV -- Appendices & Notes
Part IV, Section 1 -- Definitions
All full-time and part-time University employees, including faculty,
students, and staff, as well as the employees and members of affiliated
organizations of the University.
Those organizations integrally connected with Millersville
University, such as the Student Services, Inc., Student Lodging,Inc.,
the MU Foundation, Alumni Association, and other recognized organizations and
programs as defined by the University.
One who is responsible for another, such as faculty with regard to
students, deans with regard to faculty, and managers or supervisors
with regard to staff employees.
Group of people or person who teaches a class.
Any unit of the University Library.
Anyone on the University payroll.
Any performance or display at a place open to the public, as well as
those campus groups and organization which might make use of copyrighted
materials, e.g., use of video tapes by groups in dormitories.
Part IV, Section 2 -- Guidelines for Seeking Permission From
Guidelines for Seeking Permission From Copyright Holders
In the course of duplicating certain copyrighted materials for
classroom purposes, it may be necessary to seek permission from
the copyright holders when the duplication falls outside of the
aforementioned parameters of fair use.
Once the copyright holder has been determined, the following
information must accompany any request for permission to
duplicate copyrighted material (see samples in Part IV, Sections
3 and 4):
1. Title, author, and/or editor, year, edition and format of
material to be duplicated.
2. Page numbers, chapters, amount of pages, and a photocopy of
material to be duplicated.
3. Number of copies.
4. Use of the copies (teaching, conference, research).
5. Whether or not the material is to be sold.
6. Type of reproduction.
This request should be sent to the copyright holder and/or the
permissions department of the publisher, accompanied by a self-
addressed, stamped envelope. It is advised that permission is
requested to duplicate copyrighted material well in advance of
the anticipated use of the material. Once a reply is given, it
is advised that the response be filed for future reference and
Part IV, Section 3 -- Sample Duplication Request Forms
Sample Duplication Request Forms
Sample Request for Permission -- Audio Visual Media
April 2, 19--
451 Main Street
Sometown, PA 00001
Dear Sir or Madam:
I would like permission to duplicate thirteen frames from one of
your filmstrips. These frames, showing tribal hunting costumes
will be combined for presentation with additional slides from my
A self-addressed envelope and a copy of this letter for your
files are enclosed for your convenience.
Please let me know what conditions, if any, apply to this use.
INDIANS OF CENTRAL PENNSYLVANIA
Material to be Duplicated:
Frames seven through nineeteen.
The slides will be used to supplement my lecture in PA History 102.
Conditions, if any:
Sample Request for Permission -- Print Media
February 2, 19--
Library Book Company
301 Philadelphia Street
Sometown, PA 00001
Dear Sir or Madam:
I would like permission to duplicate the following for classroom
A self-addressed envelope and a copy of this letter for your
files are enclosed for your convenience.
RECRUITING ACADEMIC FACULTY, Second Edition
Eric McMillan and Diane Smith
Material to be Duplicated:
Pages 23, 24, 25, 26, and 57 (photocopies enclosed), all in Chapter
Number of Copies:
50 each semester - Total 150 copies
Photocopies will be distributed free to class students.
Office of the Academic Vice President
Conditions, if any:
Part IV, Section 4 -- Sample Form: Authorization to Video/Audio Tape
Sample Form: Authorization to Video/Audio Tape
Authorization to Video/Audio Tape
Millersville University of Pennsylvania
I, ____________________ authorize Millersville University of
Pennsylvania to record by audio or video tape my presentation as
The recording may be used by Millersville University for
educational purposes either in classrooms, or for research. It
may be made available for use through an individual
teacher/researcher or be available through the University
I authorize the use of my name and program title for the
identification of such program.
The University use shall extend to: ____________________ .
Part IV, Section 5 -- Sources on Copyright in the Library
Sources on Copyright in the Library
Althouse, Jay. _Copyright: The Complete Guide for Music
Educators._ East Stroudsburg: Music in Action, 1984.
71p. (Reference 780.29 A467)
_Copyright and Home Copying: Technology Challenges the Law._
Washington, D.C.: U.S. G.P.O., 1989. (Government Document:
Y3.T 22/2:2 c79/2)
_Copyright Law: What Every School, College and Public Library
Should Know/Video Recording._ Northbrook, Illinois:
Association for Information Media and Equipment, 1987.
(Curriculum Videocassette: VC346.0482 c796)
Library of Congress. Copyright Office. _Copyright Liability of
States and the Eleventh_ Amendment, June 1988: A report of
the Register of Copyrights. Washington, D.C.: Library of
Congress, 1988. (Government Document: LC 3.2:L61/2)
Peterson, Gary M. and Trudy Huskamp Peterson. _Archives and
Manuscripts: Law_. Chicago: Society of American
Archivists, 1985. (344.092 P442)
_Questions and Answers on Copyright for the Campus Community_.
Oberlin, Ohio: The National Association of College Stores,
Inc., 1991. [Also available at University Store]
Reed, Mary Hutchings. _The Copyright Primer for Librarians and
Educators_. Chicago: American Library Association and
National Education Association, 1987.
(Reference 346.0482 R251).
_Reproduction of Copyrighted Works by Educators and Librarians_.
Washington, D.C.: Copyright Office, Library of Congress,
May 1991. (Circular 21).
Talab, R.S.. _Commonsense Copyright: A Guide to the New
Technologies_. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland and Co., 1986.
United States. _Copyright Law of the United States of America:
Contained in Title 17 of the United States Code_.
Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress, U.S. Copyright
Office, 1991. (Government Document: LC3.4/2:92/991).
_Video Copyright Permissions: A Guide to Securing Permission to
Retain, Perform,and Transmit Television Programs Videotaped
Off the Air_. Friday Harbor, WA: Copyright Information
Services, 1989. (Reference 347.306482 V662 1989).
Vleck, Charles W. _Copyright Policy Development: A Resource
Book for Educators_. Friday Harbor, WA: Copyright
Information Services, 1987. (Reference 346.0482 V846)
Part III, Section 6 -- Notes
(1) These guidelines are a revision of the University's 1978
policy and are based on those compiled by Indiana
University of Pennsylvania (March 1991).
(2) Robert L. Oakley. "Copyright and Preservation: A Serious
Problem in Need of a Thoughtful Solution" (Washington,
D.C.: The Commission on Preservation and Access, September
1990), pp. 24-25.