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Interested in making your community more sustainable? Join HabitatMT by restoring community parks and preventing water pollution in your neck of the woods.


Background of HabitatMT

Why Sustain Community Parks?

Economic Benefits

Environmental Benefits

Health Benefits

How are Sustainable Parks Being Created?

Construction Planning

Primary Components of Park Designs

Removing Invasive Plants

Planting Native Plants

Minimizing Impermeable Surfaces

Maintenance Planning

Habitat MT Projects

Educational Opportunities

Clean Waterways

Background on the Bay

Water Pollution- What is it?

Soures of Water Pollution

Lancaster County Agriculture

Effects of Water Pollution

Aquatic Ecosystems


Human Health

Preventing and Reducing Water Pollution


Background of HabitatMT

Manheim Township volunteers are taking initiative to make Lancaster County more sustainable.  In January 2010, a core committee of seven Manheim Township citizens formed Habitat Manheim Township (HabitatMT).   With support from Manheim Township commissioners, the group began considering new ways to sustain biodiversity in Manheim Township.   They began striving to utilize ecological landscaping practices to protect land and waterways, while also creating diverse habitats for wildlife.

Since its start in 2010, HabitatMT has focused primarily on the 450 acres of landmass in Manheim Township parks.  They have successfully completed several projects, such as the Children’s woods in Overlook Park and the Children’s Discovery Meadow.  But they have not stopped there.  HabitatMT has also worked to educate Manheim Township citizens on sustainability in their own homes.  A number of hands-on educational activities such as workshops have already been held and are planned for the future.


Why Sustain Community Parks?

There are a number of benefits in creating sustainable community parks.  These benefits include economic stimulation, environmental sustainability and better health and safety among the community.

Economic Benefits
Public parks are often used as a source of recreation and tourism.  According to the Brookings Institution report “Back to Prosperity, a Competitive Agenda for Renewing Pennsylvania,” the Commonwealth is suffering from what is called “brain drain.”  In other words, the study proves that young, highly skilled workers are more likely to move to other states where outdoor activities, such as walking trails and rock climbing, are more abundant.  With this in mind, it is important to develop and re-build parks in commercial areas to attract these skilled workers back to the area.  These workers will then help to put money back into the economy through housing, consumer goods and taxes.  Sustainable community parks therefore have the potential to raise revenue vital to a city’s success. 

Environmental Benefits
One of the primary components of creating sustainable parks is removing invasive plant species and replacing them with native species.  Benefits of native plantings are three-fold.  First, native plantings increase the amount of biodiversity in an area.   Insect and animal species tend to migrate towards habitats that best fit their needs of shelter and food.  As native plantings are re-introduced to an area, native insects and animals will begin to thrive.  As a result, there will be less species loss.  Native plantings will also attract an increased number of pollinators to the area, which aid in habitat growth.  Simply put, native plantings increase the amount of biodiversity in an area.

Native plants thrive in areas where they originated because the geological area provides soil components necessary for nourishment.  After a native plant has been established, it requires less supplemental water, fertilizers and pesticides.  As fertilizers and pesticides are some of the main sources of water pollution via storm water run off, decreasing the amount used to aid plant growth will be beneficial in decreasing the risk of water pollution.


Health Benefits
Recently, scientists at the University of Illinois studied two groups of young adults.  One took a walk through a nature reserve, the other through an urban setting.  The groups later took attention tests.  The group that had walked through nature were found to have better attention spans and expressed less feelings of anger than the urban group, suggesting that activities offered by the outdoors are more likely to relieve mental fatigue and increase overall happiness.

In addition, the outdoors offers a cleaner, less polluted environment for humans.  Recent statistics have raised large concerns about the impacts indoor air pollution has on humans.  For instance, levels of 11 common air pollutants can be up to two to five times higher inside United States homes and commercial buildings than they are outdoors.  In some cases, these pollutants can be as much as 100 times higher.  And while almost 70 percent of our time is spent indoors, we are at high risk for illnesses and diseases.  In fact, indoor air pollution has caused as many as 6,000 premature cancer deaths per year in the United States, causing the EPA to place indoor air pollution at the top of the list of 18 sources of cancer.  By providing local communities with the opportunity to enjoy outdoor activities in sustainable parks, we are giving the community the chance to live healthier lives.


How are Sustainable Community Parks Being Created?

Construction Planning

Every successful community park begins with a successful construction plan.  But before a plan can be put together, it is necessary to take a field walk of local community parks and other areas that could use work.  After an area has been chosen for re-construction, an inventory is taken on the natural resources currently available in the park, such as current wildlife habitats, geology, soil and natural waterways.  A natural resource management plan is then created that outlines the objectives for the newly constructed park and the actions required for meeting the objectives.  The plan may also include a timeline for construction and budget estimates both for construction and maintenance.  After a plan is created, it is taken to park management and county officials, who ultimately decides to accept or reject the plan.  If accepted, county commissioners will later issue a monetary amount deemed acceptable to complete the project.

HabitatMT carries out similar construction planning.  Carl Neff, the director of public works at Overlook Park in Manheim Township, is also a HabitatMT volunteer.   When HabitatMT completes a construction plan, Neff approaches his manager, Mike Rimer with the ideas presented by the organization.   Together, Neff and Rymer consider the cost of the presented changes and approach Manheim Township with a budget for consideration.

Because HabitatMT is primarily volunteer based, support may come from county commissioners, public works or even homeowner associations.  Support may be provided in a number of ways, including free labor and sources of funding in monetary or plant donations.   The organization will later rely on Township employees and community volunteers to help clean out the area and complete necessary tasks such as planting.


Primary Components included in a Design of Sustainable Community Parks

When considering a design for a new sustainable community park there are a number of components to include in the design.  Some of the most popular components are the removal of invasive plant species, planting native plant species and replacing impermeable pathways.

1. Removing Invasive Plants
Invasive plant species are plants introduced from outside of a particular ecosystem.  Invasive plants spread aggressively after introduction, causing them to dominate an area and making them extremely difficult to control.  It is important to identify invasive plant species and remove them because they easily out-compete native plants for light, space and nutrients.

The following are a few examples of Invasive Plant Species:

Norway Maple (Acer platanoides)

This deciduous tree offers dark green leaves with five to seven lobes and long pointed teeth.  It can easily be confused with the sugar maple, a native plant in Lancaster County.   Pulling seedlings by hand, repeated cutting and herbicidal treatment are all effective ways to control the growth of this tree.

Japanese Barberry (Berberis thunbergii)

This deciduous shrub offers bright green, oval shaped leaves arranged alternatively on the stem.  The barberry can be hand-pulled using gloves to protect against its sharp thorns.

Mile-a-Minute (Polygonum perfoliatum)

This aggressive trailing vine features light green triangular leaves and barbs on its stem.  Removing young seedlings that emerge repeatedly throughout the summer season is recommended to maintain this aggressive vine.

English Ivy (Hedera helix L.)

This vine is an evergreen that develops root-like structures that enable it to adhere to trees and walls.  The English Ivy is commonly mistaken for the Boston Ivy, which is very similar in appearance, but is deciduous.  Hand-pulling is effective removal, though roots will remain alive until systemic herbicide is applied.

Japanese Stilt Grass (Microstegium vimeneum)

This herb is a sprawling annual grass that resembles a small bamboo plant.  The grass is very similar in appearance to native grasses such as Virginia Cutgrass and Pennsylvania Smartweed.  Mowing or cutting Japanese Stilt Grass will prevent further seed production.

Garlic Mustard (Alliaria petiolata)

This herb can be found growing during cool, wet summer seasons and features clusters of small white flowers.  Cutting plants near the ground are recommended, as pulling has the potential to cause additional infestations in the soil.

2. Planting Native Plants
After invasive plant species have been identified and removed from the area, it is then necessary to replace invasive plants with native plants indigenous to the area.  The inclusion of native plantings will help to support and encourage more diverse wildlife by creating quality habitats.  A wide variety of native plantings are also encouraged to increase wildlife.  Examples of native trees, shrubs and flowers of varying sizes can be found below:

Native Trees
  Large Canopy (75-100 feet)

Sugar Maple (Acer saccharum)

The Sugar Maple is a shade tree that offers habitat for a large variety of wildlife.  A dense canopy of leaves allow for shade and vibrant fall foliage.  It is sensitive to soil compaction and salt and prefers moist, well-drained soils.

White Oak (Quercus alba)

The White Oak is a woodland tree that serves as habitat for wildlife, especially butterflies and moths.  It is sensitive to soil compaction but it is extremely adaptable and can tolerate moist to dry soils.

American Sycamore (Platanus occidentalis)

The American Sycamore has unique, white, scaly bark and offers soft, fuzzy fruit.  It prefers moist soil conditions, but is very adaptable and is often used as a shade tree in parks.

   Medium Canopy (40-75 feet)

Sassafras (Sassafras albidum)

The Sassafras has uniquely shaped leaves and fall foliage.  It resents root disturbance and prefers moderately acidic soil with pH 6.1-7.0.

Basswood (Tilia americana)

This is an extremely adaptable tree.  It tolerates wide ranges of acidity and moisture in its soil. The Basswood also attracts wildlife and is a pollinator and nectar source.

Eastern Red Cedar (Juniperus virginiana)

The Eastern Red Cedar is an adaptable evergreen.  It is home to nesting sites and prefers neutral acidity in the soil.

   Small Canopy (12-40 feet)

Red Buckeye (Aesculus pavia)

This slow-growing tree is often grown underneath larger trees.  It has an abundance of red flowers growing from the foliage, which attract hummingbirds.  The Buckeye resents root disturbance and prefers moist soil.

Flowering Dogwood (Cornus florida)

The Dogwood offers white flowers and attracts a high number of animal and insect species.  It is sensitive to soil compaction, prefers well-drained soil and moderate acidity.  If possible, planting in full sun should be avoided, as it is susceptible to anthracnose.

Sweetbay Magnolia (Magnolia virginiana)

The Sweetbay Magnolia is a woodland tree with fragrant flowers and glossy foliage.  It prefers  moist, acidic soils and is prone to breakage in ice and storm damage.

To see recommendations for more native shrubs, please visit the Manheim Township Native Tree Planting List.


Native Shrubs
   Large Shrubs (10-12 feet)

Bottlebush Buckeye (Aesculus parviflora)

This highly foliaged hedge features white flowers.  It requires part sun to shade and does particularly well in moist areas.

Mountainlaurel Kalmia (Kalmia latifolio)

This broadleaf evergreen offers fragrant flowers and a slow growth rate.  Although the Mountainlaurel requires part sun to shade, it is resistant to soil compaction and does well in a large variety of acidic and moist soils.

Sweet Azalea (Rhododendron arborescens)

The Sweet Azalea offers deciduous foliage and fragrant flower.  It is extremely sensitive to salt, drought and soil compaction and prefers soil with acidity ranging from 4.5- 6.0.  The Azalea is a slow grower and requires some sun and some shade throughout the day.

   Medium Shrubs (6-10 feet)

Gray Dogwood (Cornus racemosa)

The Gray Dogwood is most often used as a buffer for areas surrounding rivers, creeks or streams. It offers fruit and is tolerant of wet or dry conditions.  Though it is salt sensitive, the Dogwood can survive through soil compaction.  It requires part sun, part shade to grow successfully. 

Carolina Allspice (Calycanthus floridus)

he Allspice is often used as a shrub border and offers fragrant flowers and fruit seasonally.  It is an extremely adaptable shrub and transplants easily.  It requires part sun, part shade, but may not grow as tall in the sun. 

Inkberry (Ilex glabra)

A broadleaf evergreen, the inkberry attracts a wide range of wildlife and acts as a buffer for riparian areas.  The Inkberry is sensitive to drought, yet tolerant of flooding and requires acidity between 4.5-6.0.  It too prefers part sun, part shade.

   Small Shrubs (Under 6 feet)

Bunchberry Dogwood (Cornus canadensis)

The Bunchberry Dogwood is often used as groundcover or woodland areas and boasts flowers and fruit.  It is a small shrub- no higher then three feet- and demands strongly acidic soil of pH 4.5-6.0 and full sun.

Oakleaf Hydrangea (Hydrangea quercifolia)

A constant bloomer of large groups of small flowers, the Oakleaf Hydrangea is used for foundation planting.  It is fairly adaptable, prefers acidic to alkaline pH 6.1-8.5 and requires part sun, part shade to grow.

Creeping Juniper (Juniperus horizontalis)

The Creeping Juniper is an evergreen with unique blue/ green foiliage.  It prefers full sun and well-drained soil, as it is sensitive to soil compaction.


To see recommendations for more native shrubs, please visit the Manheim Township Native Shrub Planting List.


Native Flowers

Black Eyed Susan (Rudbeckia hirta)

This bright, daisy-like flower has a long bloom time and is extremely hardy.  It requires moderate amounts of water and enjoys sun to shady conditions.

Common Milkweed (Asclepias syrica)

This dull green flower is two to six feet in height, features purple/ pink flowers and is known for attracting butterflies.  It prefers full sun, but is very tolerant after it is established.

New England Aster (Aster novae-angliae)

The New England Aster is a showy perennial that features distinct purple flowers and yellow centers between the months of August and October.  It prefers full sun and moist, rich soil.

Turtlehead (Chelone glabra)

This extremely tolerant plant is known to be a strong grower.  Wet conditions and some shade are best growing conditions.  The Turtlehead attracts wildlife such as hummingbirds.

Jacob’s Ladder (Polemonium reptans)

Jacob’s ladder is known for its purple/ blue clusters of flowers.  It does best in shady spots and is drought tolerant, though well-drained soil is a must.

Please note:  the number of native plant species is not limited to those listed on this site.  Check local plant nurseries that specialize in plants native to Lancaster County for an extensive list.   


3. Minimizing Impermeable Surfaces

Impermeable surfaces are surfaces that do not allow water to penetrate to the soil, forcing water to run off of the surface.  Examples of impermeable surfaces include asphalt, concrete and brick pavers.  Whenever possible, it is best to replace these items with permeable, or porous materials such as permeable pavement, mulch, gravel and natural vegetation.  Increasing porous surfaces will help to recharge ground water, reduce erosion, filter out pollutants and lessen flooding events.  If impermeable pathways much be used, use them in as small of an area as possible and as far away from water bodies as possible.


Maintenance Planning

After a sustainable community park project is complete, it is necessary to perform regular maintenance on the area.   Maintenance may include preventing and controlling invasive species, replacing native plant species that are not doing well, mulching and occasional pest management.  HabitatMT relies on volunteers from the local community to help maintain recently constructed parks on a weekly basis.  HabitatMT has also begun an annual event called the Great PA Cleanup, in which Manheim Township citizens volunteer to go take care of areas within Overlook Park.  Without diligent maintenance efforts of sustainable parks, invasive plants would return, indigenous wildlife would disappear and the lifespan of the park would decrease dramatically.


HabitatMT Projects

Over the past two years, HabitatMT has worked diligently to restore Manheim Township parks.  The group has primarily focused on areas in Overlook Park, but has begun to branch out to other locations in Manheim Township. 

In March 2010, HabitatMT initiated its very first project called the “Children’s Woods.” The group worked to restore a 70 by 100 foot area within the Overlook Park’s Destination Playground.  Prior to construction, the “Children’s Woods” was the only niche in Overlook Park with shade.   To enhance this special part of the park, HabitatMT built pathways, removed invasive plant, salvaged plants from Heritage Path, and even included seating areas for children and adults alike.  Though the Children’s Woods have been completed, HabitatMT is hard at work adding a rain garden, salvaging a vernal pool and adding an area for butterfly-friendly flowers in the surrounding area. 

Most recently, HabitatMT revealed the Children’s Discovery Meadow.  The Discovery Meadow is located behind the Manheim Township Public Library and serves as an illustration of the natural meadows that are just beyond the library.

Currently, HabitatMT is working to restore Landis Woods.  The project involves the creation of themed areas, the removal of invasive plant species and the restoration of herbaceous areas.  HabitatMT partnered with the Pennsylvania Audubon, fondly known as Bird Town, on the project.  It is expected to be complete in 2012.

But HabitatMT has not stopped there.  In addition to their larger projects, HabitatMT has spent time working to include native plantings in Manheim Township.  Volunteers have planted indigenous plant species in the entrance to the Manheim Township Library, Perelman Park and even recommended native plants for Memorial Hill, a 9/11 memorial opening in 2012.  HabitatMT plans on holding a native plant sale on April 28, 2011 at Stauffer Mansion in order to encourage Manheim Township citizens to plant indigenous species in their own backyard.


Educational Opportunities

HabitatMT feels that increasing awareness is a vital part of sustaining Lancaster County.  With this in mind, HabitatMT has held a number of workshops and dinners to help educate citizens on what they can do to be more sustainable in their own homes.

They have also created newsletters that are updated seasonally to inform as well as promote completed and upcoming projects and events to the Manheim Township community.  Newsletters can be found on the Manheim Township Public Website under Documents>HabitatMT.           


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Clean Waterways

As HabitatMT began to grow, the organization began looking into other ways to be sustainable in Lancaster County.  As Lancaster County was recently named one of the leading contributors of water pollution in the Chesapeake Bay watershed, it was clear to HabitatMT volunteers that water pollution was their next project. 


Background on the Bay

The Chesapeake Bay is an estuary in which salt water from the Atlantic Ocean meets freshwater from rivers and lakes in North America.  The Bay’s drainage basin covers 64,299 miles and includes parts of six states in the northeastern United States.  Almost half of the freshwater found in the Chesapeake Bay comes from the Susquehanna River watershed.  The watershed extends from New York, into Pennsylvania and ends in Maryland. 

Over the past 70 years, the population within the Susquehanna River watershed has increased dramatically.   Between 1940 and 2007, the number of people living in the Chesapeake Bay area grew from 3.7 to 16.6 million.  This increase in population has led to increased concerns about water pollution in the Chesapeake Bay because of human activities. 


Water Pollution- What is it?

Water pollution can be defined as any chemical, biological or physical change to water quality that has a harmful effect on living organisms or makes water unsuitable for desired uses.  In the Chesapeake Bay, the primary concern is high concentrations of phosphate, nitrate and sediment levels.  These chemicals spawn high concentrations of algae, which block sunlight to underwater grasses.  When algae decompose, it consumes oxygen and creates “dead zones” where oxygen levels are too low to sustain habitat and aquatic life forms.  To make matters worse, the Chesapeake Bay is so shallow that only one percent of the waste that enters it is flushed back into the ocean, allowing almost no natural pollution cleanup. 


Sources of Water Pollution

There are two general sources of water pollution: point sources and non-point sources.  Point source pollution is easy to determine because pollution is directly discharged from a single point, such as smoke stacks and sewers.  Non-point sources, on the other hand, cannot be traced back to a single point of discharge.  Run-off, subsurface flow and acid rain are a few examples of non-point pollutants.  Though very different from each other, point and non-point sources are equally as important to the threat of water pollution in the Chesapeake Bay.  For instance, point sources such as sewage treatment plants and industrial plants account for 60 percent of the phosphates entering the bay.  Non-point sources, mostly runoff of fertilizer and animal wastes from urban, suburban and agricultural land account for 60 percent of nitrates in the bay.  Sediment from soil erosion also has a significant contribution to water pollution.


Lancaster County Agriculture


Lancaster County is known for its agricultural production.  It boasts rich, fertile soil and is one of the leaders in meat, vegetable and dairy production in America.  However, Lancaster’s dependence on agriculture has a negative impact on the water quality of the Susquehanna River and its tributaries.  One of the primary concerns of agriculture is the use of pesticides and fertilizers to enhance growth of crops.  If these products are used on sloping farmland, or applied immediately prior to rainfall, there is high risk for these pollutants to wash away in groundwater runoff and land in the Susquehanna River or its tributaries. 

Lancaster County is also known for its cows.  While these cows provide cultivation of the Pennsylvania landscape and natural fertilizers, they have a high impact on water quality.  For instance, cows often use creeks, streams and rivers that fall across a farmer’s property as a way to cool down during a hot summer’s day.  However, if the water body is not properly fenced to prevent cows from entering the water, they can drag sediment and natural waste into it, instantly polluting it.  In addition, creeks, streams and rivers are often surrounding by a sloped bank.  When the cows descend this slope, there is a potential of loosening eroded soil on the bank and causing it to fall directly into the water.  For all of these reasons, agriculture is the leading cause of water pollution in the Chesapeake Bay.


Effects of Water Pollution

Pollution in the Chesapeake Bay has many long-reaching impacts.  These include impacts on aquatic ecosystems, economic impacts and impacts on human health.  

Aquatic Ecosystems
As previously mentioned, nutrient pollution like phosphates and nitrogen cause extreme growth in algae.  This algae reduces sunlight, killing beneficial sea grasses, using up oxygen and degrading habitat.   Algae is therefore the primary cause for death of fish species, who are left with little to no food to eat and no oxygen to breathe. 

The Chesapeake Bay has been valued over one trillion dollars for its fishing, tourism, property values and shipping activities.  About two billion dollars and 41,000 jobs are pumped into the economy through the commercial seafood industry in Maryland and Virginia.  And roughly eight million wildlife watchers spent $636 million in 2006 alone on trip expenses.  If water pollution continues at its current rate, the United States will see a marked drop in income from aquatic related activities as well as a decrease in the number of aquatic jobs. 

Human Health
In some cases, the growth of algae can lead to impacts on human health.  The combination of warmer waters and nutrient pollution in the Chesapeake Bay has contributed to numerous waterborne infectious diseases, including the growth of blue green algae known as Cyanobacteria.  The bacteria can cause liver disease, skin rashes, nausea and vomiting.  In 2006, 31 percent of cyanobacteria blooms were found to have enough toxins to make the water unsafe for children to swim in. 

Public drinking water standards have also been affected due to water pollution in the Chesapeake Bay.  Drinking water with too many nitrates can raise the risk of cancer, nervous system deformities in infants, hemorrhages in the spleen and other severe health risks.


Preventing and Reducing Water Pollution

A number of federal, state and local programs are currently in place to protect the amount of harmful pollutants being produced and dumped as waste.  In 1983, the United States implemented the Chesapeake Bay Program.  The program is an attempt at integrated coastal management among citizens, communities, state legislatures and the federal government to reduce pollution inputs into the bay.  Strategies include establishing land-use regulations amount the six watershed states to reduce agricultural and urban runoff, banning phosphate detergents, upgrading sewage treatment plants and better monitoring of industrial discharges.   Most recently, the Federal Environment Protection Agency called for each of the six states contributing to the Chesapeake Bay watershed to reduce their total maximum daily load (TMDL) of nitrogen, phosphorus and sediment by establishing a “pollution diet.”  Every two years, the Environmental Protection Agency tests rivers and their tributaries to determine the amount of pollution in the water.  If a river is identified as heavily polluted, a plan is created to clean up the current pollution and a total maximum daily load of the primary pollutants is set for the area surrounding the river.   Extensive measures are taken to keep these areas accountable for their actions by implementing two-year assessments and penalties if necessary.

The Lancaster County Clean Water Consortium is an organization in Lancaster County working to improve water quality through storm water initiatives.  The Consortium has focused on storm water infiltration and the Municipal Separate Storm Sewer System (MS4).  The MS4 system includes the establishment of ditches, curbs, gutters, storms sewers and other ways of collecting runoff that do not connect with a wastewater collection system or treatment plant.  The system must be owned or operated by a public agency such as a city or town, municipal utility district, state or federal agency. 

HabitatMT has joined the Clean Water Consortium in their initiative to produce cleaner waterways in Lancaster County.   HabitatMT is currently holding “Chesapeake Bay” workshops to educate citizens on how to improve water quality by minimizing storm water runoff on personal property.  During the workshops, HabitatMT volunteers explain how utilizing rain barrels, rain gardens and pervious surfaces can help to filter excessive nutrients from water instead of depositing them into storm drains and waterways.   The group has already introduced this initiative in their own projects by including pervious pathways during construction of the Children’s Discovery Meadow.   

HabitatMT is also taking initiative to improve the quality of water by restoring natural wetlands such as the Overlook Wetland.   Wetlands act as a natural sponge for rain water, helping to reduce runoff and prevent flooding.  However, wetlands across the country are on the decline.  Instead of creating new wetlands, HabitatMT hopes to revitalize the current wetlands in Manheim Township to help prevent future flooding. 

In January 2011, HabitatMT was given a grant from TreeVitalize- a program from the Alliance for the Chesapeake Bay- to restore riparian buffers.  In receiving the grant, Manheim Township was selected to be one of eight pilot sites in Pennsylvania.  Over five acres of wetland area at Overlook Park will be restored in the year 2012 by removing invasive plants, planting native plants, installing new pathways and revitalizing the springhouse built in 1800.   The project will also highlight the process of buffer restoration.

HabitatMT volunteers hope that, by educating local citizens about ways to raise water quality and carrying out many of these ideas through their own projects, more people will be encouraged to put pressure on public agencies to crack down on water pollution and implement systems like the MS4.


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This site was created by Kim Landis at Millersville University of Pennsylvania

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