BIOLOGY 

The Department of Biology offers three degrees and nine options leading to the baccalaureate degree. The requirements are very similar for all programs during the first two years so that any change in career emphasis need not involve any major loss of time or credits. The department also offers a minor in biology.

The program leading to the bachelor of arts degree is broad, embracing interdisciplinary study of cell and molecular biology; plant and animal science; and population biology. Programs can be tailored to prepare the student for employment or graduate study in a variety of subdisciplines of biology.

The program leading to the bachelor of science provides the student an opportunity to elect a substantial number of courses in a specific area of biology. This program provides a strong background for admission to graduate or professional school and prepares the student for employment in the field of biology upon graduation.

Options available within the B.S. program include: botany, ecology, marine, molecular biology/biotechnology, respiratory therapy, medical technology, nuclear medicine technology, optometry and pre-podiatry.

Students in the botany option concentrate on the study of plants while obtaining a broad background in biology. This option effectively prepares those interested in professions in horticulture or plant sciences and in advanced graduate study in botany.

The ecology option (environmental studies) permits students to concentrate in ecology and enables them to gain expertise to be competitive in industry, governmental agencies and graduate school.

The marine option encourages students to choose electives in the marine biology area. Many marine science courses are offered at our field station at Wallops Island, Virginia, since they usually involve significant field work. For more information on the field station, see "Marine Science Consortium" in the Special Academic Opportunities section.

The molecular biology/biotechnology option allows students to concentrate in genetics, cell and molecular biology. The courses required for this option complement each other, training students in a variety of laboratory methods and enabling students to gain the theoretical understanding and technical expertise currently needed to be competitive in industry and graduate school.

After completing three years of undergraduate study, students in the medical technology program are eligible to apply to an accredited hospital-based medical technology program for one year of clinical laboratory experience after which they will be awarded the bachelor of science degree and will be eligible to sit for the national certification examination. Currently, MU is affiliated with ten hospital-based medical technology programs.

After completing three years of undergraduate study, students in the nuclear medicine technology program are eligible to apply for admission to one of the member hospitals of the Lancaster Institute for Health Education School of Nuclear Medicine Technology for one year of hospital training after which they will be awarded the bachelor of science degree and will be eligible to sit for the national certification examination.

An agreement between Millersville University and the Pennsylvania College of Optometry in Philadelphia allows students in the optometry option to complete three years of undergraduate study at Millersville and then transfer to Philadelphia for the first year of study in the doctoral program. Students who complete the year with good grades receive a B.S. in biology from Millersville University and after three additional years earn the doctor of optometry degree.

A cooperative option exists between Millersville University and the Pennsylvania College of Podiatric Medicine. This 3/4 pre-podiatry program allows students to transfer to the professional school after satisfactorily completing 99 semester hours at the University. After successful completion of the basic science courses at the Pennsylvania College of Podiatric Medicine, students are awarded a B.S. in biology from Millersville University. Three recommended Millersville students a year have reserved spaces for admission to the podiatric college, where graduation after four years earns a D.P.M. degree.

Millersville University is the sponsoring institution for the respiratory therapy program. After successfully completing three years of study at the University, students enter the 16 month clinical phase. At the end of the clinical phase, they are awarded the bachelor of science degree, and a certificate in respiratory therapy, and will be eligible to sit for the national credentialing examination.

The education curriculum leads to the bachelor of science in education with secondary education certification in biology.

Individualized programs in pre-medicine, pre-dental, pre-optometry, pre-podiatry and pre-veterinary medicine are organized with the program adviser.

Admission-to-the-Major Policy

The Office of Admissions admits qualified students to the biology major as they enter the University. Students enrolled at Millersville University will be permitted to declare biology as a major once they have earned grades of C (2.00) or better in CHEM 111, CHEM 112, and either BIOL 211 or BIOL 221, as well as maintaining an overall GPA of 2.00.

Retention-in-the-Major Policy

University requirements for retention must be met. In addition, all biology majors except those in allied health options (medical technology, nuclear medicine technology, and respiratory therapy) must earn grades of C (2.00) or better in BIOL 211, BIOL 221 and BIOL 263. Allied Health students must earn grades of C (2.00) or better in BIOL 211 and BIOL 263. These requirements must be satisfied before completion of 60 Millersville University credit hours. University students who change their major, or their option within the Biology major, must satisfy the above requirements prior to completion of 30 additional credit hours. Transfer students with 60 credit hours or more must satisfy the requirements prior to completion of 30 Millersville University credit hours. Transfer students with fewer than 60 credits must follow the policy for all other majors. Any students failing to meet these requirements will be dropped from the biology major. Those who wish to re-enter the major must meet Admission-to-the-Major requirements.