Ciphering Book (1845)

Written by Isaac Sheaffer.

This is a mathematics textbook that contains rules to perform addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. The first section is on addition, and it is titled "Addition of Federal Money." It contains a description of the rule for addition and example problems. The next section deals with simple subtraction. Next, the ciphering book contains five different forms of multiplication. These different forms are: simple multiplication, multiplication case II, multiplication case III, multiplication case IV, and multiplication case V. Each case for multiplication has a rule and examples. Also, there are four forms of division. They range from division of whole number, case II, case III, and contractions in division. There is a section dealing with the reduction of dollars to others units. The ciphering book also contains additional practical examples for these procedures.

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