Dr. John R. Wallace

Professor Emeritus, Entomology, Ecology & Evolutionary Biology, Aquatic Entomology, Medical and Forensic Entomology, Stream Ecology. Co-Coordinator, Watershed Education Training Institute

Dr. John R. Wallace


B.S., Pennsylvania State University
M.S., Shippensburg University
Ph.D., Michigan State University

Courses Taught:

BIOL 416 – Entomology
BIOL 516 – Aquatic Entomology
BIOL 445 – Aquatic Biology
BIOL 446 – Ecosystems
BIOL 343 – Ecology and Evolution
BIOL 242 – Ecology Laboratory
BIOL 316 – Invertebrate Zoology
BIOL 448 – Biological Problems Of Environmental Management
BIOL 472 – Topics - Biological Aspects of Forensic Science
BIOL 471 – Seminar - Forensic Entomology
BIOL 471 – Seminar - Invasion Ecology
BIOL 340 – Perspectives of Environmental Awareness
BIOL 100 – General Biology

Areas of Specialization:

Medical Entomology, Ecology & Evolutionary Aquatic Entomology, Forensic Entomology, Stream Ecology, Crayfish Ecology, Microbial Ecology.

Research Interest(s):

My primary research interests focus on the population dynamics and feeding ecology of immature and adult mosquitoes. Current projects involve 1) examining the role of mosquitoes and other biting flies in the transmission of Mycobacterium ulcerans, the causative agent to Buruli ulcer, a necrotic skin disease that infects people living around the equatorial regions of the world, specifically West Africa, Australia and South America; 2) blackfly surveillance in the Raritan River, NJ; 3) Role of the necrobiome ecology in aquatic forensic ecology; 4) larval and adult macroinvertebrate community response to stream restoration. Research areas being driven by students currently in my lab include projects focused on: 1) Microplastic assessment in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, 2) Microbiome community changes in avian development from hatching through death 3) PCB assessment in macroinvertebrates , 4) Bycatch impacts on insect biomass and diversity.


1) Microplastic assessment in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, 2) Bycatch impacts on insect biomass and diversity, 3) Endocrine disrupting chemical assessment in macroinvertebrates (with Horton lab).


Current Students


Undergraduate Students 


Abigail Horst

The role of Non-biting midges in carrion decomposition



Past Graduate Students


Jenn Stough

Culex mosquito species oviposition activity

James Haefner  (MU, MS ’05)

The role of algae in determining a postmortem submersion interval in streams



Past Students


Kerrie Martin (MU'22) Impact of insect bycatch trapping on non-target species biomass reductions
Nikki Lee (MU'21) Microplastic assessment in aquatic insects

Ben Vlam (MU'21)

Cross system transfer of micro plastics from aquatic to terrestrial ecosystems

Olivia Keys (MU’20)

Land use effects on PCB contamination in terrestrial insects

Lindsay Matter (MU’20)

Assessing the prevalence of PCBs in macroinvertebrates

Caitlyn Tynes (MU’20)

Microplastic contamination in drinking water supplies

Austin Harrison (MU'19)

Assessment of microplastics in stormwater basin habitats

Marisa Macchia  (MU'19)

Historical assessment of microplastics in macroinvertebrates in southeastern PA

Megan Davis  (MU'18)

Assessing the prevalence of PCB's in wetland habitats

Jenn Houtz  (MU'18)

Microbiome changes through avian development from egg-fledgling

Kayli Thomas  (MU '17)

Microbiome analysis of parasitic louse flies on migrating raptors.

Phil Hutchinson (MU '17)

Lab testing of the efficacy of a novel mosquito oviposition trap. 

Joe Receveur (MU '16)

Changes in larval mosquito microbiota reveal non-target effects of insecticide treatments in hurricane-created habitats

Frank Herr (MU '16)

Bactericidal effects on black fly larvae and habitat microbiomes in the Raritan River and development of citizen science programs at MU.

Ryan Walker (MU '16)

Development of a dichotomous key for larval mosquito identification for Hunterdon County Department of Public Health West Nile Control Program.

Calen Wylie (MU '15)

The effects of Ailanthus altissima plant extract on target adult mosquito control.

Emily Neideigh (MU '15)

Larva and adult aquatic insect response to stream restoration in the big Spring Watershed.

John Rutt

Bactericidal effects on black fly habitat microbiomes of the Musconetcong River, NJ.

Sara Lukunich (MU '14)

Stream restoration impact on organic matter processing in the Big Spring watershed.

Spencer Howlett (MU '14)

Crayfish growth and behavioral response to an invasive plant diet.

Alex Rittle (MU '13)

Macroinvertebrate community response to stream restoration.

Kristin Sloyer (MU '11)

Larval mosquito and predator population dynamics along an urbanizing gradient.

Julie Hughes (MU '11)

Rapid bioassessment of headwater streams impacted by Marcellus Shale gas mining.

Jill Ross (MU '10)

Detection of Wildlife DNA in maggot tissue.

Stacey Bernetski (MU '10)

Forensic entomotoxicology.

Scott Starr (MU '08)

Stream restoration impacts on macroinvertebrate and fish communities in Lancaster County.

Adam Darrenkamp (MU '08)

Habitat and population survey of the crayfish-feeding Queen snake (Regina septemvittata).

Dan D'Agostino (MU '06)

Using an immunochromatographic test to distinguish human and non-human blood samples collected from maggots.

Sarah Funck (MU’06)

Conservation ethics of the sale of native/non-native reptiles and amphibians and the potential impact on wild populations.

Cindy Willman-Kinsey (MU '06)

Macroinvertebrate community dynamics on freshwater sponges.

Jill Wise (MU '06)

Spongillafly growth, development, and survivorship as a function of depth on sponges in a freshwater quarry.

Kate Zimmerman (MU '06)

Taxonomic characterization of algae colonizing pig carcasses in brackish ponds.

Jason Wagner (MU '06)

Crayfish distribution as a function of size and stream velocity.

Sean Laverty (MU’05)

Ecological modeling of invasive crayfish habitat.

Jason Reppert (MU '05) /
Buddy Kondikoff (MU '05)

The effects of stream restoration on fish and macroinvertebrate communities.

Lauren Way (MU '03)

The effects of liquid bleach on pig decomposition.

Jenn Davis (MU '03)

The effects of stream restoration on fish and macroinvertebrate communities.

Jackie Iera (MU '03)

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of chlorpyrifos and atrazine in native and exotic crayfish from Lancaster County, PA.

Jen Ernst (MU '02)

The role of algal growth in ponds to determine a postmortem submersion interval.

Laura Roach (MU '02)

Macroinvertebrate communities on fresh-water sponges with a special focus on spongillaflies.

Carrie B. Wengert (MU '01)

Crayfish survey of Lancaster County.

Joe Santoro (MU '01)

The effects of insecticide on pig decomposition.

Lindsay Zemba (MU’00)

Population dynamics of the Great Spangled Fritillary.

Becky Stoner  (MU’99)

Bioaccumulation of pesticides in aquatic midges.


SELECTED PUBLICATION(S): (* Denotes Student author)

Mee, T. P., A.H. Buultjens, J. Oliver, K. Brown, J.C. Crowder, J.L. Porter, E.C. Hobbs, L.M. Judd, G.Taiaroa, N. Puttharak, D.A. Williamson, K.R. Blasdell, R. Feldman, M.O.Muzari, C.Sanders, S. Larsen, S.R. Crouch, P.D.R. Johnson, J.R. Wallace, D.J. Price, A.A. Hoffman, K.B. Gibney, T.P. Stinear and S.E. Lynch. 2024. A transmission chain linking Mycobacterium ulcerans with Aedes notoscriptus mosquitoes, native possums and human Buruli ulcer cases in southeast Australia. Nature Micro, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41564-023-01553-1

McNeish, R.E., M. Macchia, N. Lee, A. Harrison, J.K. Jackson, J. R. Wallace. Archived  historical aquatic macroinvertebrate specimens suggest connections between microplastic abundance patterns and trophic traits and land-use. INSECTS, Under Review

Vandelannoote, K, A.H. Buultjens, J.L. Porter, A. Veelink, J.R.Wallace, K.R. Blasdell, M. Dunn, V. Boyd, J.A.M. Fyfe, E.L. Tay, P.D.R. Johnson, S. Windecker, N. Golding and T.P. Stinear.  2023. Structured fecal surveys of Australian native possums predict Buruli Ulcer in humans. eLife, DOI: https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.84983  

Wallace, J.R., M.E. Benbow, C. Willman-Kinsey*. 2023. Temporal changes in temperature suggests microhabitat shifts in larval spongillafly Climacia areolaris Hagen (Neuroptera: Sisyridae) abundance and density in a temperate freshwater quarry. Great Lakes Entomologist, Vol. 56, No. 1-2: 18-26.

Monika Böhm, D.L. Waldien, G. P. Setliff, K. O.Abenis, L. F. Aguirre, P. Akite, M.S. Alviola, P.  A. Alviola, J.L. Aramayo Bejarano, J.A.T. Badon, A.L. A. Barrion-Dupo, G. Brodie, A. Cabras, Cátia Canteiro, J.A.Danoff-Burg, E.R.C. De Chavez, M.R.M. Duya, O.L. Eusebio, N.  Fauzi, Z. J. Glass, N.E. Grabowski, J.F. Guerra Serrudo, S.S. Henriques, B.M. Horton, V.K.  Jayaraj, B.A. Kaplin, S.M. Keller, M.J. Ledezma Arias, L.I. Lit, Jr., C.C. Lucañas, M.N.D.  Medina,M.D. Meyer, J. Miladin, A. Mourad, G.M. Mueller, S. Narayan, J.C.B. Naredo, T.  Osborne-Naikatini, J.B. Rasalan, B. Rashni, M. Simon, A. Suganthi, N. Thomas-Moko, C.B. Torrejos, J.R. Wallace, H.Waqa-Sakiti, S.Yap. Catalyzing red list assessments of  underrepresented taxa through partner networks and student engagement. 2022.  Diversity,14, 723.https://doi.org/10.3390/d14090723.

Wallace, J.R., M.E. Benbow, C. Willman-Kinsey*. Temporal changes in temperature suggests microhabitat shifts in larval spongillafly Climacia areolaris Hagen (Neuroptera: Sisyridae) abundance and density in a temperate freshwater quarry. Submitted to Great Lakes Entomologist, Accepted.

Houtz*, J, J. Receveur*, ME Benbow, JL Pechal, B Horton, and J.R. Wallace. 2022. Avian gut microbial composition across decomposition: exploring a potential new approach for wildlife forensics. For. Sci. Internatl., 2: doi.org/10.1016/j.fsiae.2022.100053.

Receveur*, J, A. Bauer, J. Pechal, S. Picq, M. Dogbe, H. Jordan, A. Rakestraw, K. Fast, M. Sandel, J.F. Guegan, J.R. Wallace, M.E. Benbow. 2021. A need for null models in understanding disease transmission: A case study of Mycobacterium ulcerans (Buruli Ulcer Disease. FEMS Microbiology Review, https://doi.org/10.1093/femsre/fuab045

Wallace, J.R., J. Receveur*, P. Hutchinson*, S.F. Kaszubinski, H.E. Wallace* and M.E. Benbow.  2021. Microbial Community Succession on Submerged Vertebrate Carcasses in a tidal river  habitat:Implications for Aquatic Forensic Investigations. Journal of Forensic Sciences.  DOI: 10.1111/1556-4029.14869  

Wallace, JR, C. Wylie* and R. Wagner. 2021. Ailanthus plant extract effects on mosquito mortality.  J. Great Lakes Entomologist. Accepted, In Press. 

Wallace, JR, J. Scala, I. Gultepe and H. LeBlanc. 2021. Bridging disciplines: The application of forensic science to meteorological evidence. J. Pure and Applied Geophysics. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00024-020-02646-2 

Starr, S.M. and J.R. Wallace. 2021. Ecology and Biology of Aquatic Insects (Editorial).  Journal Insects,12, 51. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12010051 

Wagner, R.L., M.E. Leach* and J.R. Wallace. 2020. Leaf extract from Ailanthus altissima  negtatively impacts life history aspects in Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) J.  Kansas Entomol. Soc. 93(2): 140-152.

McCabe, R*., J. Houtz*, J. Receveur*, K. Thomas*, M.E. Benbow, J.L. Pechal, J.R. Wallace. 2020.Characterizing the microbiome of ectoparasitic louse flies feeding on migratory raptors. PLoS One  doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0234050.

Smith, R.* E. Neideigh*, A. Rittle*, and J.R. Wallace. 2019. Assessing macro invertebrate community response to restoration of Big Spring Run: Expanded analysis of BACI sampling designs. River Research and Applications: 1-12, https://doi.org/10.1002/rra.3556.

Wallace, J.R. 2019. Computer-aided image analysis of crayfish bitemarks – reinterpreting evidence: a case report. Forensic Science International. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2019.03.038.

Wallace, J.R. 2019. Culicidae. In: An introduction to aquatic insects in North America, Fifth Edition (R.W. Merritt, K.W. Cummins and M. Berg, editors). Kendall Hunt Publishers, Dubuque, IA.

Anderson, G.S., P.S. Barton, M. Archer, J.R. Wallace. 2019. Chapter 3 – The Scavenging Community, Subchapter: Invertebrates. IN Carrion Ecology and Management. Eds. Olea, P.P., Mateo-Tomás, P. and Sánchez-Zapata, J.A. Wildlife Research Monographs Series, Springer-Verlag Publishers.

Anderson, G.S. and J.R. Wallace. 2019. Methods for Monitoring Carrion Decomposition in Aquatic Environs. IN Carrion Ecology and Management. Eds. Olea, P.P., Mateo-Tomás, P. and Sánchez-Zapata, J.A. Wildlife Research Monographs Series, Springer-Verlag Publishers.

Butin, E., D. River, and J.R. Wallace. 2019. Chapter 29: Teaching Forensic Entomology. In: Utility of Arthropods in Legal Investigations, Third edition (J. Byrd and J. Tomberlin, eds.), CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.

Sanford, M. J.H. Bryd, J.K. Tomberlin, and J.R. Wallace. 2019. Chapter 3: Collection of entomological evidence in legal investigations. In: Utility of Arthropods in Legal Investigations, Third Edition (J. Byrd and J. Tomberlin, eds.), CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.

Scala, J.R. and J.R. Wallace. 2019. Chapter 18: Forensic Meteorology: The science of applying weather observations to civil and criminal litigation. In: Utility of Arthropods in Legal Investigations, Third Edition (J. Byrd and J. Tomberlin, eds.), CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.

J.R. Wallace and R.W. Merritt. 2019. Chapter 7: The role of aquatic organisms in forensic investigations. In: Utility of Arthropods in Legal Investigations, Third Edition (J. Byrd and J. Tomberlin, eds.), CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.

*Receveur, J., J.L. Pechal, M.E. Benbow, G. Donato, T. Rainey and J.R. Wallace. 2018. Changes in larval mosquito microbiota reveal non-target effects of insecticide treatments in hurricane created habitats. Microbial Ecology doi:1007/s00248-018-1175-3.

Kilpatrick, J, N. Marcom-Dietrich and J.R. Wallace. 2018. Engineering a model of the earth as a water filter. Science and Children – Engineering Encounters, pp. 73-77.

Yocom, S.* and J.R. Wallace. 2017. Entomopathogenic nematodes as a biological control: The impact of Soil texture and moisture on host-seeking success of Deterohabitis bacteriophora. The Great Lakes Entomologist, 50 (3,4): 52-60.

Wallace JR, KM Mangas, JL Porter, R Marcsisin, SJ Pidot, B Howden, et al. 2017. Mycobacterium ulcerans low infectious dose and mechanical transmission support insect bites and puncturing injuries in the spread of Buruli ulcer. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 11(4): e0005553. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0005553.

Tobias, NJ, NA Amissah, EK Ahortor, Abas, JR Wallace, A. Ablordey and TP Stinear. 2016. Domestic Animals in rural Ghana are unlikely reservoirs of Mycobacterium ulcerans. PeerJ, 4:e2065; Doi 10.7717/peerj.2065.

Stough, J, and J.R. Wallace. 2016. Oviposition activity patterns of Culex mosquitoes in Pennsylvania J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc., 32(2): 156-159.

Lang, J., R. Erb*, J. Pechal, J.R. Wallace, R. McEwan and M.Eric Benbow. 2016. Microbial biofilm community variation in flowing waters: potential utility as bioindicators of postmortem submersion intervals. Microorganisms (4), 1: 1-17. Doi:10.3390/microorganisms401001.

Wallace, J.R. 2015.  Aquatic carrion decomposition. In: Carrion Ecology, Evolution and Their Applications, (M.E. Benbow, J.K. Tomberlin & A.M. Tarone (eds). CRC/Taylor & Francis Group, London, UK. 

Haines, A.M., S.L. Webb, and J.R. Wallace. 2015. Cracking down on wildlife crime: how wildlife law enforcement research helps conservation. The Wildlife Professional, (January): pp 35 -37.

Benbow, M.E., J.L. Pechal, J.M. Lang, R.E. Erb* and J.R. Wallace. 2015. The potential high-throughput metagenomic sequencing of aquatic bacterial communities to estimate the postmortem submersion interval. J. Forensic Science: Vol 60 (6): 1500-1510. doi: 10.1111/1556-4029.12859.

Wallace, JR, JH Byrd, H LeBlanc and V Cervenka. 2015. History of Forensic Entomology in North American. In: Forensic Entomology: International Dimensions and Frontiers (JK Tomberlin and ME Benbow eds), CRC Press Boca Raton, FL. 433 pp. 

Tarone, A.M., J.K. Tomberlin, M.E. Benbow, S. VanLaerhoven, J.R. Wallace, E. Mondor, J. Spencer, R.M. Mohr. 2014. A correspondence from a Maturing Discipline, Letter to the Editor Response. J. Med. Entomology, 51(3): 490-492.

Wallace, J.R. 2014. A Book Review – Wildlife Forensic Investigation: Principles and Practice. Journal of Wildlife Management, 78(4):753-754.

Wallace, J.R. and R. Mehrenberg. 2013. Entomology and economics: A service learning project at Millersville University. The News Bulletin of the Entomological Society of Pennsylvania, 48(3): 8-9.

van Ravensway, J, ME Benbow, AA Tsonis, S Pierce, LP Campbell, JAM Fyfe, JA Hayman, PDR Johnson, JR Wallace, J Qi. 2012. Climate and landscape factors associated with Buruli ulcer incidence in Victoria, Australia. PLoS ONE 7(12):e5 1074. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0051074.

Tomberlin JK, JH Byrd, JR Wallace, ME Benbow. 2012. Assessment of decomposition studies indicates a need for standardized and repeatable research methods in forensic entomology. J Forensic Res 3:147. DOI:10.4172/2157-7145.1000147.

Hardy, C.R. and J.R. Wallace. 2012. Algae in Forensic Investigations. Pp 145 - 173 (Chapter 9), in: Forensic Botany: A Practical Guide. (DW Hall and JH Byrd, eds.). John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. London. Pp 145 - 173.

Huffman, J.E. and J.R. Wallace. 2012. Wildlife Forensics: Techniques and Applications. Wiley Publishing, London, UK. 370pp.

Wallace, J.R. and J.C. Ross. 2012. History of Wildlife Forensics, In: Wildlife Forensics: Techniques and Applications (J.E. Huffman and J.R. Wallace, eds.). Wiley Publishing, London, UK pp 35-50.

Wallace, J.R. and R.W. Merritt. 2011. A Criminal ‘Case' to be made with Caddisflies In: (J. Li, editor), Wading for Bugs:  Discovering Stream Invertebrates with the Experts, Oregon State University Press, Corvallis, OR. Pp 61-64. 

Lieb, D.A., R.W. Bouchard, R.F. Carline, T.R. Nuttall, J.R. Wallace, and C.B. Wengert*. 2011. Conservation and Management of Crayfishes: Lessons from Pennsylvania. Fisheries, 36(10): 489 - 507. 

Merritt, R.W., E.D. Walker, P.L.C. Small, J.R. Wallace, P.D.R. Johnson, M.E. Benbow and D. Boakye. Buruli. 2010.  Ulcer Diseases: A systematic review of ecology and transmission. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 4(12): e911.doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0000911.

Wallace, J.R. M.C. Gordon, L. Hartsell, L. Mosi, M.E. Benbow, R.W. Merritt, P.L.C. Small. 2010. Interaction of Mycobacterium ulcerans with mosquito species: implications for transmission and trophic relationships. Appl. Environ. Microb, Vol 26(18):6215-6222.

Fyfe, J.A.M.,C.J. Lavender, K.A. Handasyde, A.R. Legione, C.R. O'Brien, T.P. Stinear, M.E. Benbow, JR Wallace, C. McCowan, P.D.R. Johnson. 2010. Environmental testing during an outbreak of Buruli ulcer in Victoria, Australia, suggests a role for mammals in the ecology of Mycobacterium ulcerans. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 4(8):e791. Doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0000791.

Tobias N.J., T. Seemann, S. J. Pidot, D. Smith, J.L. Porter, L. Marsollier, T. Zakir, J. R. Wallace, K. L. Tuck, J. K. Davies, B. P. Howden, G. A. Jenkin and T. P. Stinear.. 2009. Discovery of promoters involved in mycolactone gene expression and their application to studies of the pathogenesis and ecology of Mycobacterium ulcerans PLoS Negl Trop Dis 3(11):e553. Dol:10.137/journal.pntd.0000553

Mosi, L, H. Williamson, J.R. Wallace, R.W. Merritt, P.L.C. Small. 2009. Persistent association of Mycobacterium ulcerans with West African predacious insects of the family Belostomatidae. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, p. 7036 - 6042

Wallace, J.R. 2009. Biting Diptera of Freshwaters. In: The Encyclopedia of Inland Waters. (G. Lykens, editor). Elsevier Publishers, London, UK pp. 280-287

Zimmerman, K.* and J.R. Wallace. 2008. Estimating a postmortem submersion interval using algal diversity on mammalian carcasses in brackish marshes. Journal of Forensic Science. 53(4): 935 - 941

Wallace, J.R., R.W. Merritt, R. Kimbarauskas, M.E. Benbow, M. McIntosh. 2008. "Caddisfly cases assist homicide case: Determining a postmortem submersion interval (PMSI) using aquatic insects." Journal of Forensic Science, Vol. 53 (1): 1-3.

Lavender, C.J., T.P. Stinear, P.D.R. Johnson, J. Azoulas, M.E. Benbow, J.R. Wallace and J.A.M. Fyfe. 2008. Evaluation of VNTR typing for the identification of Mycobacterium ulcerans in environmental samples from Victoria, Australia. FEMS Microbiology Letters: 1-18

Wallace, J.R. and R.W. Merritt. 2008. The use of aquatic insect evidence in criminal investigations. In: Entomology and Death, 2nd Edition, (N. Haskell and R. Williams, eds.), Joyce Publishing, North Carolina pp. 114 - 130.

Wallace, J.R. 2007. Stormwater management and mosquito ecology: A systems-based approach towards an integrative management strategy. Journal of Stormwater Management. 8(2):20-46.

Merritt, R.W., J.L. Lessard, K.J. Wessell, O. Hernandez, M. B. Berg, J. R. Wallace, J. A. Novak, and B.W. Merrit. 2005. Effects of Bacillus sphaericus (VectoLex® ) on Nontarget Organisms in a Mosquito Control Program in southeastern Wisconsin: A Three-Year Study. Journal of American Mosquito Control Association, 21: 201-212.

Wallace, J.R. and R.W. Merritt. 2004. Diel feeding periodicity of larval anopheline mosquitoes on microorganisms and microinvertebrates: a spatial and temporal comparison of Anopheles quadrimaculatus (Say) (Diptera: Culicidae) diets in a Michigan pond. Journal of Medical Entomology, 41: 853-860.

Wallace, J.R. and F.D.L. Rinkevich*. (MU'02) 2004. Aquatic entomology and fly fishing. In: Encyclopedia of Entomology Vol. 1 pp. 177-179. (J.L. Capinera, ed.). Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Netherlands. 815 pp.

Haefner, J*. ( MU'04 ), J.R. Wallace and R.W. Merritt. 2004. Pig decomposition in lotic aquatic systems: the potential use of algal growth in establishing a postmortem submersion interval (PMSI). Journal of Forensic Science, 49(2):330-336.

Wallace, J.R. and P.R. Grimstad, 2002. A preliminary characterization of the physiological ecology of overwintering Anopheles mosquitoes in the Midwestern USA. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association, 18(2): 126-127.

Wallace, J.R. and R.W. Merritt. 1999. Influence of microclimate, food, and predation on Anopheles quadrimaculatus (Diptera: Culicidae) growth and developmental rates, survivorship, and adult size in a Michigan pond. Journal of Environmental Entomology, 32(2): 233-239.